AbstractWe report the observation of a controlled Landau-Zener transition (LZT) in Rydberg atoms by breaking the symmetry of the underlying Hamiltonian. For a nonhydrogenic Rydberg atom inside a changing electric (F) field, a LZT occurs between the avoided crossing energy levels of neighboring Rydberg states only for a sufficiently high changing rate. If a transverse magnetic (B) field is applied as we implement, the atomic level symmetry is broken, which causes the Stark manifolds denoted by a different |m| (m is the magnetic quantum number) to interact with each other. The mixed state levels end up pushing the adiabatically repelled target states closer and additionally they serve as stepping stones for the sequential LZTs between the neighboring sublevels. Such a feature significantly decreases the changing rate required for an efficient LZT inside a pure electric field. We report experimental observations that support the above scenario. It opens a versatile approach for engineering a controlled LZT in more general systems. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.063203https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29481261/Supported by the National Key Basic Research and Development Program and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
AbstractDue to the development of ground-based, large-aperture solar telescopes with adaptive optics (AO) resulting in increasing resolving ability, more accurate sunspot identifications and characterizations are required. In this article, we have developed a set of automated segmentation methods for high-resolution solar photospheric images. Firstly, a local-intensity-clustering level-set method is applied to roughly separate solar granulation and sunspots. Then reinitialization-free level-set evolution is adopted to adjust the boundaries of the photospheric patch; an adaptive intensity threshold is used to discriminate between umbra and penumbra; light bridges are selected according to their regional properties from candidates produced by morphological operations. The proposed method is applied to the solar high-resolution TiO 705.7-nm images taken by the 151-element AO system and Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics prototype system at the 1-m New Vacuum Solar Telescope of the Yunnan Observatory. Experimental results show that the method achieves satisfactory robustness and efficiency with low computational cost on high-resolution images. The method could also be applied to full-disk images, and the calculated sunspot areas correlate well with the data given by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). DOI: 10.1007/s11207-017-1236-7 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11207-017-1236-7
AbstractA hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, Dh−1). The dimension Dh of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge–gravity and gravity–geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge–geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond.DOI: 10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-5504-3https://link.springer.com/article/10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-5504-3Supported by the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Strategic Leading Science and Technology Project, Frontier Science Key Research Program, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.
AbstractWe demonstrate high fidelity single-qubit gate operation in a trapped single neutral atom. The atom is trapped in the recently invented magic-intensity optical dipole trap (MI-ODT) with more stable magnetic field. The MI-ODT efficiently mitigates the detrimental effects of light shifts thus sufficiently improves the performance of single qubit-gates. The gates are driven with microwave, and the fidelity of gate operation is characterized by using the randomized benchmarking method. We obtain an average error per Clifford gate of 3.0（7）∗10-5 which is much below the error threshold (10-4) for fault-tolerance. This error is found to be dominated by qubit dephasing, and the corresponding coherence time relevant to the Clifford gates is also measured experimentally. This work is an essential step toward the construction of a scalable quantum computer with neutral atoms trapped in an MI-ODT array. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.240501 http://export.arxiv.org/pdf/1712.06306
AbstractThe coalescence of a stellar-mass compact object together with an intermediate-mass black hole, also known as an intermediate-mass-ratio inspiral, is usually not expected to be a viable gravitational wave source for the current ground-based gravitational wave detectors, due to the generally lower frequency of such a source. In this paper, we adopt the effective-one-body formalism as the equation of motion, and obtain the accurately calculated gravitational waveforms by solving the Teukolsky equation using the frequency-domain method. We point out that high frequency modes of gravitational waves can be excited by large eccentricities of intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals. These high frequency modes can extend to more than 10 Hz, and enter the designed sensitive band of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We propose that such kinds of highly eccentric intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals could be feasible sources and potentially observable by the ground-based gravitational wave detectors, like the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo.DOI: 10.1088/1361-6382/aa891bhttps://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6382/aa891b
AbstractBinary black hole systems are among the most important sources for gravitational wave detection. They are also good objects for theoretical research for general relativity. A gravitational waveform template is important to data analysis. An effective-one-body-numerical-relativity (EOBNR) model has played an essential role in the LIGO data analysis. For future space-based gravitational wave detection, many binary systems will admit a somewhat orbit eccentricity. At the same time, the eccentric binary is also an interesting topic for theoretical study in general relativity. In this paper, we construct the first eccentric binary waveform model based on an effective-one-body-numerical-relativity framework. Our basic assumption in the model construction is that the involved eccentricity is small. We have compared our eccentric EOBNR model to the circular one used in the LIGO data analysis. We have also tested our eccentric EOBNR model against another recently proposed eccentric binary waveform model; against numerical relativity simulation results; and against perturbation approximation results for extreme mass ratio binary systems. Compared to numerical relativity simulations with an eccentricity as large as about 0.2, the overlap factor for our eccentric EOBNR model is better than 0.98 for all tested cases, including spinless binary and spinning binary, equal mass binary, and unequal mass binary. Hopefully, our eccentric model can be the starting point to develop a faithful template for future space-based gravitational wave detectors.DOI:10.1103/PhysRevD.96.044028https://journals.aps.org/prd/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevD.96.044028
AbstractWith aLIGO’s discovery of the gravitational wave (GW) sources, we were ushered into the age of observational GW astronomy. The success of LISA Pathfinder in demonstrating the LISA drag-free requirement paved the road of using space missions for detecting low-frequency and middle-frequency GWs. The new LISA GW mission proposes to use arm length of 2.5 Gm (1Gm = 106 km). The TAIJI GW mission proposes to use arm length of 3 Gm. In order to attain the requisite sensitivity, laser frequency noise must be suppressed to below the secondary noises such as the optical path noise, acceleration noise etc. In previous papers, we have performed the numerical simulation of the time delay interferometry (TDI) for original LISA, ASTROD-GW and eLISA together with a LISA-type mission with a nominal arm length of 2 Gm using the CGC2.7/CGC2.7.1 ephemeris framework. In this paper, we follow the same procedure to simulate the time delay interferometry numerically for the new LISA mission and the TAIJI mission together with LISA-like missions of arm length 1 Gm, 2 Gm, 4 Gm, 5 Gm and 6 Gm. To do this, we work out a set of 2200-day (6-year) optimized mission orbits of each mission starting at March 22, 2028 using the CGC 2.7.1 ephemeris framework. We then use numerical method to calculate the residual optical path differences of the first-generation TDI configurations --- Michelson X, Y & Z; Sagnac α, β & γ; Relay U, V & W; Beacon P, Q & R; Monitor E, F & G --- and the second generation TDI configurations --- 2-arm type, [ab, ba]’s (a, optical path from S/C 1 to S/C 2 and back to S/C 1; b, optical path from S/C 1 to S/C 3 and back to S/C 1); [aabb, bbaa]’s; [abab, baba]’s; [abba, baab]’s; Sagnac-type α2, β2 & γ2. The resulting optical path differences of the second-generation TDI calculated for new LISA, TAIJI, and LISA-like missions or arm length 1, 2, 4, 5 & 6 Gm are well below their respective limits which the laser frequency noise is required to be suppressed. However, for of the first generation X, Y, and Z TDI configurations, the original requirements need to be relaxed by 3 to 30 fold to be satisfied. For the new LISA and TAIJI, about one order of magnitude relaxation would be good and recommended; this could be borne on the laser stability requirement in view of recent progress in laser stability. Compared with X, Y and Z, the X+Y+Z configuration does have a good cancellation of path length differences and could serve as a null string detection check. We compile and compare the resulting differences of various TDI configurations due to the different arm lengths for various LISA-like mission proposals and for the ASTROD-GW mission proposal.https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1707/1707.09127.pdf
AbstractWe investigate constraints on Lorentz invariance violation in the neutrino sector from a joint analysis of big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. The effect of Lorentz invariance violation during the epoch of big bang nucleosynthesis changes the predicted helium-4 abundance, which influences the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background at the recombination epoch. In combination with the latest measurement of the primordial helium-4 abundance, the Planck 2015 data of the cosmic microwave background anisotropies give a strong constraint on the deformation parameter since adding the primordial helium measurement breaks the degeneracy between the deformation parameter and the physical dark matter density. DOI:10.1140/epjc/s10052-017-4959-6https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1140%2Fepjc%2Fs10052-017-4959-6.pdf
AbstractThe direct detection of gravitational wave by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory indicates the coming of the era of gravitational-wave astronomy and gravitational-wave cosmology. It is expected that more and more gravitational-wave events will be detected by currently existing and planned gravitational-wave detectors. The gravitational waves open a new window to explore the Universe and various mysteries will be disclosed through the gravitational-wave detection, combined with other cosmological probes. The gravitational-wave physics is not only related to gravitation theory, but also is closely tied to fundamental physics, cosmology and astrophysics. In this review article, three kinds of sources of gravitational waves and relevant physics will be discussed, namely gravitational waves produced during the inflflation and preheating phases of the Universe, the gravitational waves produced during the fifirst-order phase transition as the Universe cools down and the gravitational waves from the three phases: inspiral, merger and ring down of a compact binary system, respectively. We will also discuss the gravitational waves as a standard siren to explore the evolution of the Universe. DOI:10.1093/nsr/nwx029https://arxiv.org/pdf/1703.00187.pdf
AbstractBig Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) theory predicts the abundances of the light elements D, 3He, 4He, and 7Li produced in the early universe. The primordial abundances of D and 4He inferred from observational data are in good agreement with predictions, however, BBN theory overestimates the primordial 7Li abundance by about a factor of three. This is the so-called “cosmological lithium problem.” Solutions to this problem using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics have not been successful over the past few decades, probably indicating the presence of new physics during the era of BBN. We have investigated the impact on BBN predictions of adopting a generalized distribution to describe the velocities of nucleons in the framework of Tsallis non-extensive statistics. This generalized velocity distribution is characterized by a parameter q, and reduces to the usually assumed Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution for q = 1. We find excellent agreement between predicted and observed primordial abundances of D, 4He, and 7Li for 1.069≤q≤1.082, suggesting a possible new solution to the cosmological lithium problem.DOI:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/165 https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/165